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KNOWBOT - TWI - Training Within Industry


Three J's Training Programs

Leadership needs have been categorized as knowledge and skills. The TWI programs are uniquely designed for the skill development of Leaders, Front-line Supervisors and Engineers. These leaders need to be trained to become competent trainers in three key skills:

  • Skill of Training (giving instructions to trainees) in order to enable them to become productive quickly;
  • Skill in Improving Methods (Continuous improvement, Kaizen etc.); and
  • Skill in Leading in order to inspire and motivate others to get involved in Training and Improving Methods


Job Instruction - TWI-JI


The primary aim of Job Instruction (JI) is to create a standard work for all operations, which will provide a basic stability to each process. People have their own different ways to perform a task. Even though standards are created, workers will conscientiously work out their "own comfortable way" of doing things. A part of the blame is on the leaders or trainers who themselves use a non-standard approach to training. It is a common sight to witness “Show Alone” or “Tell Alone” methodology by trainers to instruct the worker/operator - and they get undesirable results as the worker fails to replicate the instructions there is no actual experience of learning by doing.


As leaders, we all want to know how to quickly train our people to learn do the job safely, correctly and conscientiously. TWI - JI develops this Skill in Instructing


The original TWI manual lists down the JI 4-Step Method, starting with understanding what the trainee already knows and to make him/her feel comfortable and at ease. Step-1 is to Prepare the Worker, which involves creating an environment that is conducive for learning and defining the right position for the trainee; thiscan be ”looking over the shoulder” of the trainer or at the actual place where the job needs to be performed.

Step-2 is to Present the Operation, wherein the trainer will tell, show and illustrate the important steps, one at a time. The steps are repeated, this time stressing the key points. It is critical that only required, adequate information is provided clearly, completely and patiently.

The trainee will Try-Out Performance in Step 3; and the trainer will make sure that he/she has completely understood the important steps, the key points and the need for each key point. Then the trainer will let them take the responsibility of doing the job correctly, without any pressure, and informing the right people to go to in case they need any help. This leads to Step-4: Follow Up where the trainer acts as a leader, displaying empathy and encouragement and making sure people feel the sense of respect and humility.


TWI-JI fundamentals can be instrumental in programming/coding of Robots that are replacing human interventions and capable of eliminating all human errors


Job Method – TWI-JM


Two of the TWI programs- Job Instructions and Job Relations - are great to gain process stability. To ensure further performance enhancement through continuously improving the processes, Job Methods becomes a powerful tool. It is comparable to Lean's Kaizen, as it focusses on empowering workers and supervisors to observe, communicate and carry out positive changes that reduce waste and increase efficiency.

The focus of JM is to identify and question each step, movement and all actions of the job and then determine the best way to carry out the job with currently available resources, such as manpower, machines, and materials. Job Method training can be imparted to the leaders/supervisors who carry out any type of work involving the use of hands, moving materials or operating machines.


TWI-JM will help to produce greater quantities of quality products in less time by making the best use of the people, machines, and materials currently available


To start, an elaborate and comprehensive job breakdown sheet (JBS) is created first and then each activity is questioned in detail using the 5W and 1H questioning techniques. We begin by determining Why a task or activity is necessary. Then we follow-up to check the authenticity of the first question by asking What is its purpose? Any activity that may be classed as non-value added, can be Eliminated.

The other three W’s provide answers to the time (When), place (Where) and by whom (Who) the task should be done. These answers give a good reason to Combine or Rearrange the location, and time, as well as the personnel handling that activity. Every time we determine How best to do the task or activity, we also get ideas that lead to further Simplify the task; and thereby develop new ideas.

It is critical to follow the sequence of questions to avoid first working, mistakenly, on optimizing a task by asking How to do it but then and later eliminating or reconfiguring that activity. Once passed, the new method is put into practice and used until a new and better method is developed. At the end, it is imperative that all those involved in creating the new method are given due credit and recognition.


IoT-enabled Smart Machines are already using data intelligence to continuously improve performance - introducing TWI-JM questioning techniques can further enhance efficiency and effectiveness


Job Relations – TWI-JR


Leaders get results from people and their success is driven by an underlying spirit of building foundations for good relations. Successful leaders believe that people must be treated as individuals. They find out and tell their people what is expected from them and will give them ideas and suggestions on how to improve. They regularly let their people know how they are getting along and give credit when due. It is their inherent behaviour to recognize any unusual or extra effort of people and to explain in advance about changes that will affect them. By communicating the Why behind a change, leaders can make it easier for their people to accept the change. Strong relations are built when the leader makes the best use of each person’s ability and provides every opportunity to help them improve and grow.


Not every individual is a born leader, but TWI – JR can help develop the Skill in Leading, and thereby create successful leaders.


Despite practicing Foundations for Good Relations, issues and challenges are bound to occur due to interpersonal problems. The future presents an even more complex environment when human-to-machine interaction will increase rapidly, and it is predicted that people will find great difficulty in deciphering real human emotions and feelings. The Job Relations module provides a systemic 4-Step approach to prevent these problems from reoccurring and helps leaders to develop a logical, common sense approach based on a people-centred view.

Step 1 is to Get the Facts, which involves collecting all data and information pertaining and applicable to the problem and speaking with the individuals concerned to get their opinions and feelings. The idea is to be sure about having the whole story before jumping to any conclusions.

With facts in hand, Step 2 is to Weigh and Decide and to stitch the facts together to consider their bearing on each other. This helps in exploring different possible actions and checking them against objectives, weighing the effect on an individual, a group, and the overall organizational KPIs.

Step 3 is to Take Action, ensuring the right people are chosen to handle the problem, appropriately timing the action and avoiding passing the problem to someone else. Finally, we follow-up on the actions and define the frequency of Step 4 – Check Results. The crucial aspect is to check for changes in output, attitudes, and relationships.


Artificial Intelligence can help leaders to build and maintain Job Relations as it simulates reliable solutions to common problems by understanding both real-time behaviours and analysing historical evidence